Mixtures

Mixtures are made of elements and compounds which are not chemcially joined together and are easy to sepaprate. 

Familiar mixtures include a fizzy drink, the air we breath, sea water, ice cream and smarties and chocolate chip cookies. 

Fizzy Drink
Ice cream and sprinkles are a mixture
Chocolate Chip Cookies - a heterogenous mixture
Sea Water
Air is a mixture
A statue of a steel bhudda

Less familair mixtures include crude oil, brass and stainless steel.  

Alloys are mixtures of a metal and another element.  Brass is a mixture of copper and zinc.  Stainless steel is a mixture of iron and chromium and carbon.  Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon.  Bronze is an alloy of tin and copper. 

A brass saxophone
An oil spill being cleaned up

Crude oil is a mixture of chemicals called hydocarbons.  Crude oil is found underground and is formed from plants and animals which died millions of years ago.

Crude oil is separated out into chemicals like petrol, diesel and aeroplane fuel.

Fractional distillation of Crude Oil

Crude oil is a thick black sludge and unfortunately it is also toxic.  The above image shows an oil spill on a beach.  Birds, fish and other sea creatures can injest the oil and it will cause them to die.  If birds get covered in oil, then it causes their feathers stick together and they can no longer fly. 

Types of Mixtures

Mixtures fall into one of two catagories which explain whether the particles in the mixture are evenly spread or not.  

A mixture is either homogenous, meaning that the particles in the mixture are equally mixed or heterogenous which means that the particles are not equally mixed.  

Chocolate chip cookies are a heterogenous mixture.  

A heterogenous Mixture
A heterogenous mixture of oil and water

Oil and water form a heterogenous mixture.  

a heterogenous mixture

Any mixture where the particles are not equally spread out and/or are in a different phase will from a heterogenous mixture.  

Homogenous mixtures are mixtures where all the substances which make up the mixture are in the same state.

A homogenous mixture

Any solution will form a homogenous mixture becasue:

1. the solute has completely dissolved

2. the solute and solvent are in the same phase

3. the solution is transparent. 

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All images sourced from wikicommons.org unless otherwise stated